Likewise, it also comprises globalization of markets; which is defined as the union of different and separate markets into a massive global marketplace. Economic globalization also includes  competition, technology, and corporations and industries. Current globalization trends can be largely accounted for by developed economies integrating with less developed economies by means of foreign direct investment , the reduction of trade barriers as well as other economic reforms, and, in many cases, immigration. International standards have made trade in goods and services more efficient.
An example of such standard is the intermodal container. Containerization dramatically reduced transport of its costs, supported the post-war boom in international trade , and was a major element in globalization. A multinational corporation or worldwide enterprise  is an organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in one or more countries other than their home country. A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement FTA. Arguably the most significant free-trade area in the world is the European Union , a politico - economic union of 28 member states that are primarily located in Europe.
The EU has developed European Single Market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, . Trade facilitation looks at how procedures and controls governing the movement of goods across national borders can be improved to reduce associated cost burdens and maximise efficiency while safeguarding legitimate regulatory objectives.
Global trade in services is also significant. For example, in India , business process outsourcing has been described as the "primary engine of the country's development over the next few decades, contributing broadly to GDP growth, employment growth, and poverty alleviation". Robinson 's theoretical approach to globalization is a critique of Wallerstein's World Systems Theory. He believes that the global capital experienced today is due to a new and distinct form of globalization which began in the s. Robinson argues not only are economic activities expanded across national boundaries but also there is a transnational fragmentation of these activities.
This means that one pair of shoes can be produced by six different countries, each contributing to a part of the production process. Cultural globalization refers to the transmission of ideas, meanings, and values around the world in such a way as to extend and intensify social relations. This has added to processes of commodity exchange and colonization which have a longer history of carrying cultural meaning around the globe. The circulation of cultures enables individuals to partake in extended social relations that cross national and regional borders.
The creation and expansion of such social relations is not merely observed on a material level. Cultural globalization involves the formation of shared norms and knowledge with which people associate their individual and collective cultural identities. It brings increasing interconnectedness among different populations and cultures. Cross-cultural communication is a field of study that looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds communicate, in similar and different ways among themselves, and how they endeavour to communicate across cultures.
Intercultural communication is a related field of study. Cultural diffusion is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas , styles , religions , technologies , languages etc. Cultural globalization has increased cross-cultural contacts, but may be accompanied by a decrease in the uniqueness of once-isolated communities. For example, sushi is available in Germany as well as Japan, but Euro-Disney outdraws the city of Paris, potentially reducing demand for "authentic" French pastry.
Globalization has expanded recreational opportunities by spreading pop culture, particularly via the Internet and satellite television. Religions were among the earliest cultural elements to globalize, being spread by force, migration, evangelists , imperialists, and traders. Christianity , Islam , Buddhism , and more recently sects such as Mormonism are among those religions which have taken root and influenced endemic cultures in places far from their origins.
Globalization has strongly influenced sports. The term globalization implies transformation. Cultural practices including traditional music can be lost or turned into a fusion of traditions. Globalization can trigger a state of emergency for the preservation of musical heritage.
Furthermore, the reduction in fertility rate in the developing world as a whole from 4. The creation and expansion of such social relations is not merely observed on a material level. A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition. New Information Technology, which is a product of the industrial revolution, is another instrument of globalization. One example is the security cooperation between the United States and the former Soviet Union after the end of the Cold War, which astonished international society. Early modern globalization is distinguished from modern globalization on the basis of expansionism , the method of managing global trade, and the level of information exchange.
Archivists may attempt to collect, record, or transcribe repertoires before melodies are assimilated or modified, while local musicians may struggle for authenticity and to preserve local musical traditions. Globalization can lead performers to discard traditional instruments. Fusion genres can become interesting fields of analysis. Music has an important role in economic and cultural development during globalization. Music genres such as jazz and reggae began locally and later became international phenomena. Globalization gave support to the world music phenomenon by allowing music from developing countries to reach broader audiences.
Bourdieu claimed that the perception of consumption can be seen as self-identification and the formation of identity. Musically, this translates into each individual having their own musical identity based on likes and tastes. These likes and tastes are greatly influenced by culture, as this is the most basic cause for a person's wants and behavior. The concept of one's own culture is now in a period of change due to globalization. Also, globalization has increased the interdependency of political, personal, cultural, and economic factors. A UNESCO report  showed that cultural exchange is becoming more frequent from Eastern Asia, but that Western countries are still the main exporters of cultural goods.
Between and , both North America's and the European Union 's shares of cultural exports declined while Asia's cultural exports grew to surpass North America. Related factors are the fact that Asia's population and area are several times that of North America. Americanization is related to a period of high political American clout and of significant growth of America's shops, markets and objects being brought into other countries. Some critics of globalization argue that it harms the diversity of cultures. As a dominating country's culture is introduced into a receiving country through globalization, it can become a threat to the diversity of local culture.
Some argue that globalization may ultimately lead to Westernization or Americanization of culture, where the dominating cultural concepts of economically and politically powerful Western countries spread and cause harm to local cultures. Globalization is a diverse phenomenon which relates to a multilateral political world and to the increase of cultural objects and markets between countries.
The Indian experience particularly reveals the plurality of the impact of cultural globalization. Transculturalism is defined as "seeing oneself in the other". In general, globalization may ultimately reduce the importance of nation states. Supranational institutions such as the European Union , the WTO , the G8 or the International Criminal Court replace or extend national functions to facilitate international agreement. Intergovernmentalism is a term in political science with two meanings.
The first refers to a theory of regional integration originally proposed by Stanley Hoffmann ; the second treats states and the national government as the primary factors for integration. Multi-level governance gives expression to the idea that there are many interacting authority structures at work in the emergent global political economy. It illuminates the intimate entanglement between the domestic and international levels of authority. Some people are citizens of multiple nation-states. Multiple citizenship , also called dual citizenship or multiple nationality or dual nationality, is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states.
Increasingly, non-governmental organizations influence public policy across national boundaries, including humanitarian aid and developmental efforts. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation projects include a current multibillion-dollar commitment to funding immunizations in some of the world's more impoverished but rapidly growing countries. As a response to globalization, some countries have embraced isolationist policies.
For example, the North Korean government makes it very difficult for foreigners to enter the country and strictly monitors their activities when they do. Aid workers are subject to considerable scrutiny and excluded from places and regions the government does not wish them to enter. Citizens cannot freely leave the country. Scholars also occasionally discuss other, less common dimensions of globalization, such as environmental globalization the internationally coordinated practices and regulations, often in the form of international treaties, regarding environmental protection  or military globalization growth in global extent and scope of security relationships.
An essential aspect of globalization is movement of people, and state-boundary limits on that movement have changed across history. As transportation technology improved, travel time and costs decreased dramatically between the 18th and early 20th century. For example, travel across the Atlantic ocean used to take up to 5 weeks in the 18th century, but around the time of the 20th century it took a mere 8 days. Tourism is travel for pleasure.
The developments in technology and transport infrastructure, such as jumbo jets , low-cost airlines , and more accessible airports have made many types of tourism more affordable. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in Some countries — such as those in the Schengen Area — have agreements with other countries allowing each other's citizens to travel between them without visas.
The World Tourism Organization announced that the number of tourists who require a visa before traveling was at its lowest level ever in Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker. For example, freedom of movement for workers in the European Union means that people can move freely between member states to live, work, study or retire in another country.
Globalization is associated with a dramatic rise in international education. More and more students are seeking higher education in foreign countries and many international students now consider overseas study a stepping-stone to permanent residency within a country. A transnational marriage is a marriage between two people from different countries.
A variety of special issues arise in marriages between people from different countries, including those related to citizenship and culture, which add complexity and challenges to these kinds of relationships. In an age of increasing globalization, where a growing number of people have ties to networks of people and places across the globe, rather than to a current geographic location, people are increasingly marrying across national boundaries. Transnational marriage is a by-product of the movement and migration of people. Before electronic communications, long-distance communications relied on mail.
Speed of global communications was limited by the maximum speed of courier services especially horses and ships until the midth century. The electric telegraph was the first method of instant long-distance communication. For example, before the first transatlantic cable, communications between Europe and the Americas took weeks because ships had to carry mail across the ocean.
The first transatlantic cable reduced communication time considerably, allowing a message and a response in the same day. Lasting transatlantic telegraph connections were achieved in the — The first wireless telegraphy transmitters were developed in The Internet has been instrumental in connecting people across geographical boundaries. For example, Facebook is a social networking service which has more than 1. Globalization can be spread by Global journalism which provides massive information and relies on the internet to interact, "makes it into an everyday routine to investigate how people and their actions, practices, problems, life conditions etc.
One index of globalization is the KOF Index of Globalization , which measures three important dimensions of globalization: However, newer indices attempt to measure globalization in more general terms, including variables related to political, social, cultural, and even environmental aspects of globalization.
Reactions to processes contributing to globalization have varied widely with a history as long as extraterritorial contact and trade. Philosophical differences regarding the costs and benefits of such processes give rise to a broad-range of ideologies and social movements.
Proponents of economic growth , expansion and development , in general, view globalizing processes as desirable or necessary to the well-being of human society. Antagonists view one or more globalizing processes as detrimental to social well-being on a global or local scale;  this includes those who social or natural sustainability of long-term and continuous economic expansion, the social structural inequality caused by these processes, and the colonial , imperialistic , or hegemonic ethnocentrism , cultural assimilation and cultural appropriation that underlie such processes.
Globalization tends to bring people into contact with foreign people and cultures. Xenophobia is the fear of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange. Critiques of globalization generally stem from discussions surrounding the impact of such processes on the planet as well as the human costs. They challenge directly traditional metrics, such as GDP, and look to other measures, such as the Gini coefficient  or the Happy Planet Index ,  and point to a "multitude of interconnected fatal consequences—social disintegration, a breakdown of democracy, more rapid and extensive deterioration of the environment, the spread of new diseases, increasing poverty and alienation"  which they claim are the unintended consequences of globalization.
Others point out that, while the forces of globalization have led to the spread of western-style democracy, this has been accompanied by an increase in inter-ethnic tension and violence as free market economic policies combine with democratic processes of universal suffrage as well as an escalation in militarization to impose democratic principles and as a means to conflict resolution.
A study by Peer Fiss and Paul Hirsch found a large increase in articles negative towards globalization in the years prior. In , negative articles outpaced positive articles by two to one. This increase occurred during a period when the total number of articles concerning globalization nearly doubled.
A number of international polls have shown that residents of Africa and Asia tend to view globalization more favorably than residents of Europe or North America. In , Philip Gordon stated that "a clear majority of Europeans believe that globalization can enrich their lives, while believing the European Union can help them take advantage of globalization's benefits while shielding them from its negative effects. Residents of the EU did not appear to feel threatened by globalization in Social spending was much higher than in the US.
At the same time, discourse on globalization, which began in the financial community before shifting to a heated debate between proponents and disenchanted students and workers. Polarization increased dramatically after the establishment of the WTO in ; this event and subsequent protests led to a large-scale anti-globalization movement.
Less educated workers, who were more likely to compete with immigrants and workers in developing countries, tended to be opponents. The situation changed after the financial crisis of Respondents with high school education also became more opposed. According to Takenaka Heizo and Chida Ryokichi, as of [update] there was a perception in Japan that the economy was "Small and Frail".
However, Japan was resource-poor and used exports to pay for its raw materials. Anxiety over their position caused terms such as internationalization and globalization to enter everyday language. However, Japanese tradition was to be as self-sufficient as possible, particularly in agriculture. Many in developing countries see globalization as a positive force that lifts them out of poverty. Opponents consider governments as agents of neo-colonialism that are subservient to multinational corporations. The literature analysing the economics of free trade is extremely rich with extensive work having been done on the theoretical and empirical effects.
Though it creates winners and losers, the broad consensus among economists is that free trade is a large and unambiguous net gain for society. Quoting Harvard economics professor N. Gregory Mankiw , "Few propositions command as much consensus among professional economists as that open world trade increases economic growth and raises living standards.
In the book The End of Poverty , Jeffrey Sachs discusses how many factors can affect a country's ability to enter the world market, including government corruption ; legal and social disparities based on gender, ethnicity, or caste; diseases such as AIDS and malaria ; lack of infrastructure including transportation, communications, health, and trade ; unstable political landscapes; protectionism ; and geographic barriers.
Economic growth is conventionally measured using indicators such as GDP and GNI that do not accurately reflect the growing disparities in wealth. Economist Paul Krugman is another staunch supporter of globalization and free trade with a record of disagreeing with many critics of globalization. He argues that many of them lack a basic understanding of comparative advantage and its importance in today's world. The flow of migrants to advanced economic countries has been claimed to provide a means through which global wages converge. An IMF study noted a potential for skills to be transferred back to developing countries as wages in those a countries rise.
Technological innovations or technological transfer is conjectured to benefit most the developing and least developing countries LDCs , as for example in the adoption of mobile phones. There has been a rapid economic growth in Asia after embracing market orientation -based economic policies that encourage private property rights , free enterprise and competition. Certain demographic changes in the developing world after active economic liberalization and international integration resulted in rising general welfare and, hence, reduced inequality.
According to Wolf, in the developing world as a whole, life expectancy rose by four months each year after and infant mortality rate declined from per thousand in to 58 in due to improvements in standards of living and health conditions. Furthermore, the reduction in fertility rate in the developing world as a whole from 4. Thus, despite seemingly unequal distribution of income within these developing countries, their economic growth and development have brought about improved standards of living and welfare for the population as a whole.
Per capita gross domestic product GDP growth among post globalizing countries accelerated from 1.
This acceleration in growth seems even more remarkable given that the rich countries saw steady declines in growth from a high of 4. Also, the non-globalizing developing countries seem to fare worse than the globalizers, with the former's annual growth rates falling from highs of 3. This rapid growth among the globalizers is not simply due to the strong performances of China and India in the s and s—18 out of the 24 globalizers experienced increases in growth, many of them quite substantial.
The globalization of the late 20th and early 21st centuries has led to the resurfacing of the idea that the growth of economic interdependence promotes peace. Some opponents of globalization see the phenomenon as a promotion of corporate interests. Globalization allows corporations to outsource manufacturing and service jobs from high cost locations, creating economic opportunities with the most competitive wages and worker benefits. While it is true that free trade encourages globalization among countries, some countries try to protect their domestic suppliers.
The main export of poorer countries is usually agricultural productions. Larger countries often subsidize their farmers e. Democratic globalization is a movement towards an institutional system of global democracy that would give world citizens a say in political organizations. This would, in their view, bypass nation-states, corporate oligopolies, ideological Non-governmental organizations NGO , political cults and mafias.
One of its most prolific proponents is the British political thinker David Held.
Advocates of democratic globalization argue that economic expansion and development should be the first phase of democratic globalization, which is to be followed by a phase of building global political institutions. Francesco Stipo , Director of the United States Association of the Club of Rome , advocates unifying nations under a world government , suggesting that it "should reflect the political and economic balances of world nations.
A world confederation would not supersede the authority of the State governments but rather complement it, as both the States and the world authority would have power within their sphere of competence". Global civics suggests that civics can be understood, in a global sense, as a social contract between global citizens in the age of interdependence and interaction.
The disseminators of the concept define it as the notion that we have certain rights and responsibilities towards each other by the mere fact of being human on Earth. An early incarnation of this sentiment can be found in Socrates , whom Plutarch quoted as saying: He proposes a process of " universalization " as an alternative.
Cosmopolitanism is the proposal that all human ethnic groups belong to a single community based on a shared morality. A person who adheres to the idea of cosmopolitanism in any of its forms is called a cosmopolitan or cosmopolite. The cosmopolitan community is one in which individuals from different places e. For instance, Kwame Anthony Appiah suggests the possibility of a cosmopolitan community in which individuals from varying locations physical, economic, etc.
One example is the security cooperation between the United States and the former Soviet Union after the end of the Cold War, which astonished international society. The most recent debate around nuclear energy and the non-alternative coal-burning power plants constitutes one more consensus on what not to do. Thirdly, significant achievements in IC can be observed through development studies. Anti-globalization, or counter-globalization,  consists of a number of criticisms of globalization but, in general, is critical of the globalization of corporate capitalism.
Opponents of globalization argue that there is unequal power and respect in terms of international trade between the developed and underdeveloped countries of the world. In The Revolt of the Elites and the Betrayal of Democracy , Christopher Lasch analyzes  the widening gap between the top and bottom of the social composition in the United States.
For him, our epoch is determined by a social phenomenon: According to Lasch, the new elites, i. In this, they oppose the old bourgeoisie of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, which was constrained by its spatial stability to a minimum of rooting and civic obligations. Globalization, according to the sociologist, has turned elites into tourists in their own countries. The de-nationalisation of business enterprise tends to produce a class who see themselves as "world citizens, but without accepting Their ties to an international culture of work, leisure, information — make many of them deeply indifferent to the prospect of national decline.
Instead of financing public services and the public treasury, new elites are investing their money in improving their voluntary ghettos: They have "withdrawn from common life". Composed of those who control the international flows of capital and information, who preside over philanthropic foundations and institutions of higher education, manage the instruments of cultural production and thus fix the terms of public debate.
So, the political debate is limited mainly to the dominant classes and political ideologies lose all contact with the concerns of the ordinary citizen. The result of this is that no one has a likely solution to these problems and that there are furious ideological battles on related issues. However, they remain protected from the problems affecting the working classes: One of the most infamous tactics of the movement is the Battle of Seattle in , where there were protests against the World Trade Organization's Third Ministerial Meeting.
Capital markets have to do with raising and investing money in various human enterprises.
The impact of globalization processes on language is an emergent field in sociolinguistics. To date there has not been an in-depth look at this in Asia. Globalization of Language and Culture in Asia: The Impact of Globalization Processes on Language (Advances in Sociolinguistics) [Viniti Vaish, Tommaso M .
Increasing integration of these financial markets between countries leads to the emergence of a global capital marketplace or a single world market. In the long run, increased movement of capital between countries tends to favor owners of capital more than any other group; in the short run, owners and workers in specific sectors in capital-exporting countries bear much of the burden of adjusting to increased movement of capital.
Those opposed to capital market integration on the basis of human rights issues are especially disturbed by the various abuses which they think are perpetuated by global and international institutions that, they say, promote neoliberalism without regard to ethical standards. In light of the economic gap between rich and poor countries, movement adherents claim free trade without measures in place to protect the under-capitalized will contribute only to the strengthening the power of industrialized nations often termed the "North" in opposition to the developing world's "South".
Corporatist ideology, which privileges the rights of corporations artificial or juridical persons over those of natural persons , is an underlying factor in the recent rapid expansion of global commerce. A related contemporary ideology, consumerism , which encourages the personal acquisition of goods and services, also drives globalization. Concern over the treatment of consumers by large corporations has spawned substantial activism, and the incorporation of consumer education into school curricula.
Social activists hold materialism is connected to global retail merchandizing and supplier convergence , war , greed, anomie , crime , environmental degradation, and general social malaise and discontent. One variation on this topic is activism by postconsumers , with the strategic emphasis on moving beyond addictive consumerism. The global justice movement is the loose collection of individuals and groups—often referred to as a " movement of movements "—who advocate fair trade rules and perceive current institutions of global economic integration as problems. Those involved, however, frequently deny that they are anti-globalization , insisting that they support the globalization of communication and people and oppose only the global expansion of corporate power.
Many nongovernmental organizations have now arisen to fight these inequalities that many in Latin America, Africa and Asia face. A few very popular and well known non-governmental organizations NGOs include: They often create partnerships where they work towards improving the lives of those who live in developing countries by building schools, fixing infrastructure, cleaning water supplies, purchasing equipment and supplies for hospitals, and other aid efforts. The economies of the world have developed unevenly, historically, such that entire geographical regions were left mired in poverty and disease while others began to reduce poverty and disease on a wholesale basis.
From around through at least , the GDP gap, while still wide, appeared to be closing and, in some more rapidly developing countries , life expectancies began to rise. Overall equality across humanity, considered as individuals, has improved very little. Within the decade between and , income inequality grew even in traditionally egalitarian countries like Germany, Sweden and Denmark. With a few exceptions—France, Japan, Spain—the top 10 percent of earners in most advanced economies raced ahead, while the bottom 10 percent fell further behind.
Critics of globalization argue that globalization results in weak labor unions: Unions become less effective and workers their enthusiasm for unions when membership begins to decline. Examples include quarrying , salvage, and farm work as well as trafficking, bondage, forced labor, prostitution and pornography. Women often participate in the workforce in precarious work , including export-oriented employment. In , a study published by the IMF posited that neoliberalism , the ideological backbone of contemporary globalized capitalism, has been "oversold", with the benefits of neoliberal policies being "fairly difficult to establish when looking at a broad group of countries" and the costs, most significantly higher income inequality within nations, "hurt the level and sustainability of growth.
Beginning in the s, opposition arose to the idea of a world government, as advocated by organizations such as the World Federalist Movement WFM. Those who oppose global governance typically do so on objections that the idea is unfeasible, inevitably oppressive, or simply unnecessary. Such reasoning dates back to the founding of the League of Nations and, later, the United Nations. Environmentalism is a broad philosophy, ideology    and social movement regarding concerns for environmental conservation and improvement of the health of the environment.
Environmentalist concerns with globalization include issues such as global warming , climate change , global water supply and water crises , inequity in energy consumption and energy conservation , transnational air pollution and pollution of the world ocean , overpopulation , world habitat sustainability , deforestation , biodiversity and species extinction.
One critique of globalization is that natural resources of the poor have been systematically taken over by the rich and the pollution promulgated by the rich is systematically dumped on the poor. Globalization is thus leading to a type of" environmental apartheid ". In her book Ancient Futures , Norberg-Hodge claims that "centuries of ecological balance and social harmony are under threat from the pressures of development and globalization. Although globalization takes similar steps in most countries, scholars such as Hodge claim that it might not be effective to certain countries and that globalization has actually moved some countries backward instead of developing them.
A related area of concern is the pollution haven hypothesis , which posits that, when large industrialized nations seek to set up factories or offices abroad, they will often look for the cheapest option in terms of resources and labor that offers the land and material access they require see Race to the bottom.
Developing countries with cheap resources and labor tend to have less stringent environmental regulations , and conversely, nations with stricter environmental regulations become more expensive for companies as a result of the costs associated with meeting these standards. Thus, companies that choose to physically invest in foreign countries tend to re locate to the countries with the lowest environmental standards or weakest enforcement.
The globalization of food production is associated with a more efficient system of food production. This is because crops are grown in countries with optimum growing conditions. This improvement causes an increase in the world's food supply which encourages improved food security. Norway's limited crop range advocates globalization of food production and availability. The northern-most country in Europe requires trade with other countries to ensure population food demands are met. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Globalization disambiguation.
Timeline of international trade. List of globalization-related indices. Global civics and Multiculturalism. Social inequality and International inequality. Global warming , Climate change , and Deforestation. Civilizing mission Cosmopolitanism Deglobalization Environmental racism Franchising Free trade Global civics Global commons Global mobility Globalism Global public goods List of bilateral free-trade agreements List of globalization-related indices List of multilateral free-trade agreements Middle East and globalization Neorealism international relations North—South divide Outline of globalization Postdevelopment theory Purple economy Technocapitalism Transnational cinema Transnational citizenship Triadization United Nations Millennium Declaration Vermeer's Hat World Englishes.
Globalization, Knowledge and Society London: Globalization, knowledge, and society: History of Information Technologies. Elon University School of Communications. Retrieved 17 August Global economy in the Asian age. University of California Press. Retrieved 3 July European Review of Economic History. The career of a concept". The Blackwell Companion to Globalization. Retrieved 7 July Oxford English Dictionary Online.
Retrieved 5 November Retrieved 23 April Globalization in World History. Definitions of the Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definition. Archived 19 November at the Wayback Machine. Globalization has significant impact on local entities. Its complexity takes decisive dimensions in particular with regard to its effects on labor immigration from the South to the North. In many cases this problem not only has political reflections, but also social dimensions.
For example, when the Algerian football player Zaindeen Zaidan has appeared as a star in the French team in World Cup , French Right Wing started to criticize the presence of non-aboriginal French in the national team Mittelman, At the same time, Algerians in both France and Algeria were so pleased and looked at Zaidan as an Algerian hero, despite the fact that he was born in France and still resides there. So globalization in this sense is reshaping the identity of many peoples particularly migrants.
Globalization and developing countries: Globalization has serious effects on many developing countries:. Although developing countries contribute in away or another to this process, yet they do not yield the benefits of this contribution. In contrast, the process destroys many aspects of life in these societies. The irresponsible behavior of some multinational corporations toward the environment of those countries, or more dangerously marketing expired products and other illegal goods are examples of this destruction.
The widening gap between the North and the South at international level, and between haves and have-nots at national level is another serous aspect of globalization. In fact, the real test to globalization is through its success in reducing the gap between the rich and the poor at local, national and global levels. Globalization has forced many countries in various parts of this world to regulate to a lower league the most fundamental needs of their peoples Muzaffar, The equitable distribution of food, adequate health care facilities, and the quality of education are no longer priority concerns the political agendas of the governments in these countries.
All these indicate that poor societies in the third world not only remain far away from benefiting from globalization, but also they continue to suffer from its calamities, pitfalls and misfortunes. It then contributes to laying the foundation of injustices and social inequalities, and moreover preventing the growth of new markets in these countries because they are unable to compete with the advanced markets. Here, competitiveness seems to be unequal and its result under all circumstances remains in favor of the strong and those who control international markets.
So instead of filling up the gap between the rich and the poor, globalization in its present formula widens this gap Aulakh, Although globalization might benefit religions through the easier exchange of information and different opinions about these religions, it however represents a source of harm to many religious and spiritual values Falk, Globalization, through its cultural and informational aspects and the promotion of consuming patterns and value corruption, challenges religious systems Aulakh, The immoral character of globalization is becoming even more serious and its negative impacts in this context have different aspects:.
Globalization has internationalized crimes. Drug trafficking and the trafficking of women and children have become much more difficult to control because of their international character. Not only crimes are globalized, but also disease Muzaffar, Another aspect of this problem is that most users of Internet in cyberspaces are adults and they waste a lot of time using the Internet for unnecessary purposes.
One of the most dangerous effects of globalization on young people is the immoral usage of the Internet. Globalization and international politics: The collapse of the Soviet Union has led to the US control of the global system and international relations. This provides the US with many opportunities to defend its own national interests globally and to challenge international legitimacy through marginalizing the role of the United Nations and ignoring the international law.
Power and interests become the main characteristics of interstate interactions. Globalization as an economic movement has significant effect on national and global economies. Although many trade blocs were established and many industrial and economic nations have emerged as a response to this process, the rules of this process have contributed to the collapse of many national economies.
Piracy is also reinforced by this process. Although globalization contributes remarkably to new scientific revolutions in many fields including computer and space sciences, these revolutions are accompanied by new sciences that may be used for immoral purposes or to damage the dignity of man whom the Almighty God honors. Example of these sciences is Genetic Engineering Science, which leads to the emergence of Cloning Science. Globalization and societal structures: The free economy and the development of technology have negative impact on laborers.
This is serous because underprivileged people are expected to revolt against their bad conditions. In this, globalization is a source of social instability and class disparity. Figure 1 shows the global strata according to World Capitalist-System theory. Globalization, motivated by economic and technologic progress, has also popularized a consumer culture among people due to the flow of goods and products. These are actually due to the business corporations, which produce the wide array of consumer goods and the media, which advertise them.
Globalization poses serious questions about peace and prosperity: Is there any relationship between the process and peace or prosperity? Could the implementation of free market principle globally enhance international peace and security or prevents wars, as globalists argue? Prosperity, welfare and economic progress which market economy is expected to achieve could enhance or create some opportunities for political stability; but it does not necessarily ensure peace or social stability. It is true that market economy has contributed to social and political stability in liberal states and to peace among them, but it does the opposite in many developing countries.
Asian economic crisis of is a case in point. The free market forces allowed manipulators to control stock markets and to transfer large amount of money just to maximize their profits, while they were destroying the economies of many Asian countries. Indeed these activities have destroyed the social structures of those societies, and furthermore, created what might be called potential social unrests in the region. That is why globalization in its current formula does not necessarily ensure social and political stability, and therefore will not lead to a more peaceful world, particularly if market forces continue to dominate the mechanisms of power without restrictions.
There is also no guarantee that economic crises and social unrests will not spread to advanced nations. The largest demonstrations against globalization are usually held in these countries. All these negative aspects of globalization pose real challenges not only to many developing countries as usually emphasizes, but also to all human beings who should, if they have to manage these problems, inject religious, ethical and moral considerations, activities and objectives associated with the globalization process.
Indeed, peoples should globalize themselves within the religious sphere and common values to build a more just world. Globalization emerged as an economic phenomenon in the s. But with the development of communications and the vast technological revolution brought by liberal systems, it has become an extension to the world capitalism, which seeks to create a liberal global community within which liberal values prevail.
If we are to reflect upon the credit and debit sides of the process, we would realize that whatever advantages have come out of it, they are to a large extent accompanied with unintended effects of a process the basic motivation of which is the expansion of market economies, the accumulation of wealth and the maximization of profits. Therefore, injustices and inequalities associated with this process, and its various consequences on societies, religions, cultures, moral systems, and even sciences, could undermine its claim that it is a harbinger of a new age of global solidarity.
In contrast, the process in its current formula could destroy the social systems of less power societies and threaten the future of human civilization. However, and regardless of our attitudes toward globalization, it is our moral responsibility, as proponents or opponents; individuals or groups; NGOs or governments, to rethink the process of globalization in a manner that enhances its advantages and reduces or eradicates its negatives.
Rethinking Globalization S From. Corporate Transnationalism to Local Interventions. International Political Economy Series. Catholic New Times , 24 June: Experiences of the Religious Traditions of Asia Pacific. International Movement for a Just World. How Globalization is Reshaping Our Lives. Some Reflections, in Globalization: Camilleri, and Muzaffar, eds , pp. Institute of Strategic and International Studies. Soubbotina, Tatyana P and Sheram, Katherine. Meeting the Challenges of Global Development. Wooldridge, Adrian and Micklethwait, John. The Challenge and Hidden Promise of Globalization.
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Instruments of Globalization There are many instruments by which globalization is being promoted and enhanced.