The Static of the Spheres (The Personal History, Adventures, Experiences & Observations of Peter Ler

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Eric Kraft grew up in Babylon, New York, on the South Shore of Long Island, where he was for a time co-owner and co-captain of a clam boat, which sank. No more cutting and splicing film strips. No more waiting for dailies. And perhaps most important for the corporate producer: The move to non-linear editing is a central technological innovation in the development of reality television, intense sports programming, and the latest battlefield systems. In this paper, I read the rise of digital non-linear editing systems as an analog to the rise of the typewriter in the work of Friedrich Kittler.

The dream of digital editing is the accomplishment of herculean tasks with the greatest of ease. The curse of digital editing is that the difficult, thoughtful, special effects of a generation ago are now expected, and even required. For Kittler, the typewriter held the promise of the Real. In the twenty-first century, the non-linear editor is both a typewriter of images and the source of the symbolic grammar of the editing timeline. In the nineteenth century we penned letters, now we edit mashups.

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Does non-linear editing entail the democratization of access to editing technology and the active engagement of the audience with an online communal life? Or, does non-linear editing stabilize and sterilize the symbolic and the imaginary? Digital Delivery of Course Content: We still don't know whether students are reading course content but online behaviors leave a trail that is easy to follow and a significant amount of data just waiting to be crunched. We know when a student registers for their digital textbook, when they download digital content and what digital content that they are downloading.

How can civic engagement deal with such unstable conditions? How can neighborhoods develop an identity that connects the past with the present? What is the role of civic media in this process? How can citizens organize successful urban civic action with smart and flexible uses of digital technologies? This presentation will explore the role of civic engagement in urban neighborhoods and how memory and local identities have shaped successful, long-term urban activism.

Taking the activist groups of a Berlin - Prenzlauer Berg neighborhood as an example, the presenters will discuss the historical context, the conditions, and the actions that have created a recognized model of civic engagement. By engaging local citizens and a wider public, such a project is able to document, trace, and further develop a historically sensitive civic identity through the integration of digital media. Emulation as a Tool to Study Videogame History, Clara Fernandez-Vara Computer game technologies and operating systems improve and change over time, so that platforms become obsolete after a few years at times, even within a few months of their release.

This process becomes an obstacle when for game researchers and teachers, who may need to play older games. Emulators, virtual machines that can be run within an operating system, are one of the most valuable tools to be able to play older games in current computing platforms. It has also become a option for game publishers to redistribute games whose rights they own but cannot commercialize any more, making them available again for new audiences. On the other hand, emulation also has its drawbacks and limitations, particularly in the cases where special hardware was needed to play the games.

There are questions that need to be addressed in order to understand the role of emulation as a tool to study and teach videogames. What is a faithful emulation? How does emulation change the original platform? What can we gain by using emulators to play older games? What are the limitations of emulation? It's the End of the World As We Know It And I Feel Fine , Kathleen Fitzpatrick As digital formats and platforms have come to dominate media consumption, many media industries have faced the perils of transition, with varying degrees of success.

We've watched a cycle of panic, retrenchment, and somewhat begrudging innovation in the music and film industries; the newspaper industry has begun to implode under its inability to create a viable new business model; there are hints in the air that cable providers may be next, as more and more customers move to streaming or downloading their television from the internet. The book publishing industry, however, continues to experience a kind of schadenfreude in watching what's going on around them. The result has been a determination on the part of the publishing industry to find the correct combination of devices and DRM that will sustain their existing business model, rather than rethinking the function of publishing in the digital era.

However, it's clear that some serious obstacles lie ahead for the industry: Most importantly, however, many authors are recognizing that ebooks allow them to go around the publishing industry to reach their audience directly. All of these reasons begin to suggest that we may be witnessing the late age of publishing, or at least the late age of trade publishing, as a strange new post-publishing landscape begins to take shape around us.

This paper will explore some of the possibilities that this post-publishing landscape presents for authors, and some of the perils that it presents for the entrenched business model within the publishing industry, looking both at what authors, publishers, and readers alike might value in this transition, and what we might have cause to regret.

The Ideology of Piracy and the Public Spheres of Modernity, Martin Fredriksson Over the last decade, the global media industry has been grappling with the growing threat of piracy. While representatives of media companies and copyright organizations discard piracy as pure theft, others regard it as a new and perfectly legitimate form of cultural consumption and re production.

This paper will look at the ideologization of piracy in relation to recent changes in copyright law. But it will also take the contemporary pirate organizations as a starting point to discuss the practice and ideology of piracy against a historical backdrop. Eventually it aims to show how the tension between copyright and piracy has reflected some crucial aspects of modern society in the past, such as the construction of private property and the creation of a public sphere, and how this reverberates in the copyright debates of today.

Body Politics in an Age of Ubiquitous Media: Resistance in the Face book of Relentless Conviviality , Norm Friesen and Shannon Lowe In the age of Facebook and pervasive and often voluntary surveillance, the meanings of what has previously been described as the modern body have been changing and mutating. By looking specifically at how the bodies and identities of Facebook users are configured in their profile information —and how this information can be used by Facebook and its advertisers—this paper shows how conflicting strategies and priorities are negotiated in this social networking service.

It is designed to encourage convergence, conviviality and consent while actively discouraging disagreement, disapproval and dissent —to say nothing of its panoptic tracking abilities.

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But when brought into relation with bodies on-line, in conflict, and their possibilities for acting in concert, as the basis of civil society, the convergence and coordination enabled by these social media can sometimes open up new possibilities and forms for action and resistance.

Understanding Television as a Social Experience , Alberto Frigo Defining the future of television continues to be the subject of intense interest. In theory, the convergence of television with the internet makes an increasing amount of content available to viewers, when they want it — any program, any time, on any device — and can make television a participatory experience. Attempts to realize this goal involve design research that focuses on balancing multiple forms of engagement, ranging from so-called passive consumption to intensely social experiences, against the growing need to simplify the discovery of content itself.

These forms of annotation take place on the technical level, through sophisticated tagging and filtering engines, as well as through social mechanisms that enrich the cultural relevance of specific content. This study will examine how such annotation impacts the production and consumption of large-scale news events such as the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. Potential Crises and the Potential of Crises , Verena Fuchsberger Using the term Generational Divides implicitly contains the idea that the generational divide is exclusively or at least mainly disadvantageous for the older generations.

Regarding western societies, they do not keep up with the younger ones in terms of new media, i. However, when considering traditional forms of media, e.

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Do younger ones unlearn how to read books and newspapers? The aim of this paper is to describe the generational divide as a crisis, which is driving changes positively or negatively. As soon as any prescription is perceived, actors will act according to Latour, those can be humans or non-humans, e. This paper tries to figure out how the generational divide might be described in terms of Latour and his understanding of the process of change.

The Static of the Spheres

Noting the importance of user-created content and dissemination, Henry Jenkins lauds YouTube as a model with significant potential for future civic participation. However, rather than advocating a move away from the personal and toward a specific civic or political topic, we seek to re-activate the historical relationship between the personal and the civic in order to help students become engaged digital citizens who use participatory media to create, revise, and re-imagine the relationship between the self and the world in ways that matter to an audience.

Virtual Bliss, Analog Horrors: Reading the Imperfect Digital Image in Film and the Video Game , Robert Furze It is possible to perceive the existence of digital technology in film as a means of creating a sense of seamlessness between virtual and analog images. Certainly, as North notes, science fiction films such as Avatar are able to offer an aesthetic in which landscapes and the bodies of actors are able to be transformed through digital technology, but even non-spectacular films such as Panic Room are able to benefit from such enhancements.

As Cubitt suggests, the melding of analog and digital images in such films offers a glimpse into a possible, utopian future. But in this new media environment, video games suggest that this synthesis of analog and virtual realities is far from complete. As agency is passed from producer to player, the mediated text is transformed.

Either by design or by accident, the player can discover the ruptures in verisimilitude that the designers according to Wolf, attempt to hide. An Israeli Perspective Yair Galily , Ilan Tamir To a large extent, most of the theoretical research on blogs and blogging relates to uses and gratifications. The aim of this current research was to determine to what extant blogs are serving as a public arena, wherein discourse conditions of equality, mutuality, and symmetry are amplified.

Indeed it seems as everyone is entitled to converse and engage in discourse; everyone has the right to raise questions, question any claims made in the discourse criticism , and make any claim that comes to mind. At the same time, however, findings indicate that specific topics get disproportionate coverage and debate often leading to overlapping collection of conversations and not a single discussion.

I am one of those eleven members. I am examining these parameters in an urban community college setting with particular emphasis on the effect Web 2. In order to best address the Teagle issue I ask: Where our faculty find that students have great facility with FaceBook, Twitter, del. It is our task not only to inform them how woefully unprepared they are but it is also incumbent upon us to make the necessary corrections to their learning so they will indeed be ready for the twenty-first century work place.

Here, individuals divest themselves of much of their personal possessions, to the extent of selling their home and living out of a laptop, external hard drive, and an Internet connection. In this paper, I consider the evolving materiality of media—from the immateriality of speech to the materiality of books, CDs etc. From Dots and Dashes to Bits and Bytes: Within fifty years, telegraph wires crisscrossed continents and oceans establishing the first global communication network.

The telegraph ushered in a period of deep and expansive change. Societies worldwide had to fundamentally alter their concepts of communication by renegotiating who could communicate with whom and under what circumstances. The telegraph was the first network to transmit messages using electricity, thus signaling a new age of disembodied communication that modified the spatial and temporal dimensions of human interaction.

The telegraph also induced changes in such institutions as financial markets, diplomacy and war, journalism, and social relations; and it helped transform information into a commodity. In this paper, I will illustrate how the age of the telegraph is relevant to the convulsive change associated with media today. I will provide insights into key debates and negotiations that occurred in the popular press and popular fiction of the telegraph period to demonstrate the continuities and discontinuities that exist between the past and present.

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Yet instead of demanding a return to clean dichotomies between social structures and technical infrastructures, I argue that this incoherence stems from an overdetermined notion of software platforms as server-side codebases. The relationship between the Wikipedia community and the MediaWiki software upon which it runs provides an excellent case for problematizing this understanding of software platforms.

Lessons from the Front: Along the way, however, an episode of significant social impact in Brazil has come out in Rio de Janeiro, reaching international repercussion: The episode — which included several violent actions in different points of the city — took place in December and lasted for 5 days, directly affecting the lives of thousands of local residents, and mobilizing the entire city. We examined this episode in light of the research debates and theories developed by authors such as Jenkins, Murray and Manovich, among others, and we raised several important issues about media arrangements and mediation practices, specifically the dynamics through television, Twitter, major media coverage and amateur content producers.

It was a sample of a real and tangible way of how cyber-culture is changing the media ecology, and also useful as foundation of some research assumptions, such as those concerning the role of the author, narrative forms, participatory culture, and user behavior on social networks. Therefore, the paper reports those findings, describing what that episode was about, what conclusions were reached upon its analysis and how worth it was in terms of creating a new model of Brazilian soap opera.

Getting What You Pay For: Piloting a Free e-Textbook Program in an Advanced Writing Course , Chris Gerben This paper will describe the process of piloting the use of e-textbooks in an advanced writing course at the University of Michigan. Of the five courses chosen for the pilot, mine was the only Humanities-based one, and also the only writing-intensive class. This paper will examine how these unique attributes allowed students to engage with the e-textbooks by reading them, but also writing back to them by proposing changes to the format, design, and implementation of future e-textbook programs.

Practically, the e-textbooks provided source material for students writing about and proposing new learning platforms. Throughout the pilot, students analyzed, critiqued, and offered suggestions for ways to implement the program in different ways. It is interesting to note that none of the students approved of the e-textbook platform as it currently exists. Often the students could not access the books, could not save or print their notes, and needed to be online in order to do their work.

This paper will examine how platforms increasingly connect economic value and the social by focusing on the role of social buttons. Drawing on digital methods, we explore the growing implementation of social buttons and counters. Special attention is paid to Facebook and its Open Graph which allows the platform to connect to the entire web through the Like Button. Many noted artists and musicians have derived inspiration from this concept and its on-going importance in new media, and the arts can hardly be overstated. In my paper, I would like to argue for the importance of situating cybernetics within a larger cultural context of the arts; especially music, to identify its social, political, and aesthetic impact on human identity.

For the discussion, I will take the musical examples of John Cage, the prominent American experimental composer who worked in minimalist and process-generated music, following cybernetic principles. And, what are the ways they can shape and develop a vision in art by understanding its underlying cybernetic characteristics? A focus on producer-sponsored, viewser-generated content and social networking allows for a consideration of how media conglomerates like Disney circulate their desired self-representations; enlist viewsers to reinforce that representation by contributing and sharing content; and repackage viewser contributions as part of the larger brand stories circulated among on-air and online platforms.

Modern Projection Planetariums as Media of Iterative Reinvention , Boris Goesl In its history, the modern planetarium increasingly was subject to radical changes. The handcrafted silhouettes with increasing frequency had been supplemented, and later replaced by projected panoramas. Not only visual mismatch of fixed skyscrapers in front of projected e. A transition from concentric to unidirectional seating correlated with that to ascending seating. The cinema-planetarium -fusion then initiated a profound transition towards new program diversity far beyond astronomy.

A Sort of Umbilical Relation: Goldberg Since the boom years of the s, the economic importance of capital flows has superseded that of flows of trade in goods and services.


It argues that the transitions in social media and new technologies will have wide-ranging implications for the future of scientific and medical research and for the relationship between medical establishment and its patients. These biases constitute the limit points within which the 21st century media ecology will evolve. The reporting can be seen at www. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. The presentation also will evaluate the experiences of the reporters in the neighborhoods and the response of the neighborhood members to the coverage. The Static of the Spheres.

Digital technology has bred the hyper-mobilization of money and a dematerialized financial market. Technological change within the university has not produced one homogenous mediatized academic world. Rather, university-based media are a mix of dominant, residual or emergent technologies. The milieu of the university is both bounded in space-time and deterritorialized by assemblages of screens-users-applications, the logic of connectivity, and crossflows of information.

This paper will focus on the experience of this transition from two sides.

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On one side is the classroom and how it has been upgraded within a wireless university so that interface time supercedes classroom and face-to-face time. Along with a new cultural metaform of academic work, live diffusion of cyberpedagogy has become normal. On the other side is the managerial role played by chief information officers and IT professionals as intermediaries between the university and the IT and software industry. At York University, for example, the institutional adoption and implementation of ICTs has been accompanied by a campus building boom and student population explosion.

IT strategy and planning has entailed adapting to external technological drivers, building information infrastructure, and adjusting internal inputs and outputs of information. My research suggests that the network and its platforms are metastable and the academic milieu is marked by increasing levels of entropy. Journalism Street by Street , Dianne M. Garyantes , Christopher Harper The presentation will describe and evaluate Philadelphia Neighborhoods, a project that was established six years ago to better tell stories in the undercovered and underserved neighborhoods of Philadelphia.

The reporting can be seen at www. Through this nationally recognized program, Philadelphia Neighborhoods provides a form of coverage missing from many urban communities: Currently, 30 neighborhoods are served by this program through stories in print, the web, and TV broadcasts. The presentation also will evaluate the experiences of the reporters in the neighborhoods and the response of the neighborhood members to the coverage.

Our Digital Condition , Till A. Heilmann In the so-called digital age, a large part of everyday life revolves around push buttons e. Indeed, perception and knowledge are nowadays mediated more and more through the manipulation of buttons e. Academic Journals Online , Karen Hellekson The transition of scholarly discourse online is proving a bumpy one.

Although some radical new modes of content vetting and delivery are emerging and "digital humanities" has become a buzzword, scholarly work online in the humanities and social sciences is not accorded the same prestige compared to journals that use a print-only or dual print-online model, despite the obvious advantages of access and use of embedded multi media.

Yet these fears also reveal sites of possible renegotiation of the academic model in a way that will help scholars and scholarly discourse.

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Publishing in the humanities and the social sciences needs to follow the lead of the sciences, which were early adopters of moving and organizing content online: Further, Creative Commons copyright and open access models have much to offer. All these ideas may be usefully co-opted by the digital humanities.

The Library Catalog as Social Glue: Using Local Data to Establish Relevance, Visibility and Transparency in Communities , Margaret Heller , Nell Taylor Chicago Underground Library CUL has developed a unique cataloging and discovery system using Drupal that we eventually hope to provide as a both a technical and theoretical template that organizations can implement in their own cities.

This replicable project uses the lens of an archive to examine the creative, political and intellectual interdependencies of a region, tracing how people have worked together, who influenced whom, where ideas first developed, and how they spread from one publication to another through individuals, creating a highly visible network of primary sources.

This paper will discuss the process for designing our keyword-based, community-driven cataloging system and the catalog itself. Catalogers use non-hierarchical combinations of subjects and keywords, allowing data that provides hyperlocal or alternative perspectives to compete alongside dominant historical records and reflecting the changing way that users seek information. Users may also contribute contextual comments and corrections from which our catalogers will filter relevant, verifiable information to add to each entry. Discussions remain on each record and changes to the entry itself will be tracked in the interest of transparency and conversation.

Where Do Bloggers Blog? Studying Platform Transitions within the Dutch Blogosphere , Anne Helmond , Esther Weltevrede The blogosphere has played an instrumental role in the transition and evolution of linking technologies and practices. This research traces and maps historical transitions of the Dutch blogosphere and the glue that creates interconnections between blogs which - traditionally considered - turn the collective of blogs into a blogosphere.

This paper aims to problematize the definition of the blogosphere by questioning who the actors that form the blogosphere through its interconnections are. Blogs included in the Loglijst, an early manual initiative to index the Dutch blogosphere, as well as several other expert lists, serve as starting points to be retrieved from the Internet Archive.

Archives have become indispensable tools to study early web cultures. We are thus able to create yearly network visualizations of the historical Dutch blogosphere This approach allows us to study the evolution of linking practices, which suggests that particular blogging practices can be distinguished through the distinct linking patterns of linklogs, lifelogs and platformlogs.

Moreover, this approach not only allows us to study the emergence and decline of blog platforms and social media platforms within the blogosphere but it also allows us to investigate whether particular linking technologies or practices are specific to local blog cultures. Platforms and Pipelines in Transition: Anatomy of a Policy Crisis , Jennifer Holt The iPhone represents the convergence of telecommunications, media, and computing which has been a dream come true for consumers. But, for regulatory policy, it has created a nightmare. Essentially, policy has been outpaced by technological and industrial advances, as regulators are struggling to accommodate a digital and convergent media landscape.

Content and carriers no longer conform to their originally designed borders or boundaries — computers now deliver phone calls, phones now deliver information and entertainment — and that has created a regulatory crisis. In fact, the Federal Communications Commission FCC is partially regulating the iPhone and similar devices with policy fundamentals first written in the era of the telegraph!

This chaos presents pressing economic, technological and cultural dilemmas about regulation in an era of convergence. This presentation will address these dynamics and crises in an era of transition, by focusing on the ways in which distribution is evolving and examining the specific role that the iPhone has played in transforming media platforms, and the pipelines that service them.

Questioning the Mission to Restore Sanity , Theo Hug , Claudia Schwarz For a young, media savvy, radically globalized generation, television as a platform for news has lost momentum. Ironically however, in a media landscape with a variety of news providers competing for audiences and trust, television news parodies like The Daily Show with Jon Stewart and The Colbert Report attract new audiences as they seem to fill a gap. How can it be that a comedy show succeeds in promoting reason and gets young people to stand up for more sanity in politics and culture?

Huntemann Play testers play videogames that are inherently unstable; games that are unfinished, unbalanced and often riddled with broken code. Moreover, changes in the economic structure and industrial practices of game development, namely the concentration of development houses into large publishing conglomerates, have lead to the professionalization of play testing. Based on interviews with producers and play testers, accounts from game development post-mortems, and usability research case studies, this paper considers the critical role of testing in the production of play.

Specifically, the author examines how moments of instability are discovered, evaluated, and tamed through the professionalized practices and industrial logics of play testing. Any website can now effectively turn into a Facebook page by implementing a few lines of code. In this paper, I examine how the biggest social network organizes the Web into different closed environments — or spheres — by taking up the example of news websites. The Guild Storyworld , Alex Jenkins In my paper, I will discuss the referential structure of Felicia Day's comics prequel story for The Guild , as well as the upcoming comics extensions of that storyworld.

In particular, I am interested in the ways in which contemporary comics adapt non-superhero forms that date back over 40 years, and thus serve as an implicit invitation into the medium of graphic narrative beyond Marvel and DC. Similarly, the web series serves as an implicit invitation into gaming culture for fans primarily interested in experimentations at the limit of television narrative.

I will situate these "invitations" as a fundamental liminal stage of fan-becoming, which is at the core of my interest in fan characterization. The Guild comics take on the typically masculine terrain of the predominantly male universe of MMORPGs, and tell a feminine story of authorial participation in that universe. Putting the Pieces Together Again: Johnsrud This paper considers the release of the digital Abu Ghraib photographs within the context of psychoanalytic trauma theory involving repetition, memory, temporality, and narrative formation.

The American response to the photographs, especially from military investigators, revealed their urgent investigative need to "plot" and temporalize the event on an axis of idiosyncratic mistakes in judgment. Abu Ghraib inquiry team—and also to this study—is a uniquely digital one: This paper examines the guanxi -embedded mobile social network in China.

Research on mobile communication for social interactions in China typically focuses on the questions of telecommunication policies, rumors and gossip under highly-controlled situations, and the political implication of satiric SMS against authorities and bureaucracies. Yet, of the many individuals experiencing the convenience of telecommunication development, of the many individuals suffering from information censorship, and of the many individuals engaging in SMS criticism, only a few talked about guanxi. How does mobile communication influence the way Chinese interact with each other, and bring further changes to interpersonal relationships and guanxi network in China?

By focusing on several concrete case studies with over 80 in-depth interviews, this study observes that mobile social networks are a way that Chinese people cultivate, maintain and strengthen their guanxi networks. The period examined culminates with the Internet World Exposition. Disruptive Technologies and Transforming Policies: Fair Use of Visual Images , Gary Keller Museum owners of works in the public domain use internet technologies to both advertise their properties and to make money from licenses and permissions to use images of them.

Wikipedia has launched a full-press assault on prevailing museum practice. The Wikimedia Foundation states as its official position that: An exact reproduction of an image in the public domain does not possess creativity itself and therefore is not protected under copyright law. The field could be defined by terms such as interactive narrative and cinema, documentary multimedia, interactive art, combinatorial art and films, database narrative etc.

Examples are brought from new media art history: Works by students are analyzed in depth, particularly documentary and fictional interactive stories with local sensibility: I try to answer questions like: Possibilities of breaking timeline, interfering with content, designing custom content give additional playful and open value to the narrative, but blur the authorship of the artwork. In other cases, interactive structure of the narrative is a distraction and disturbance for the reader and viewer and the story could be much better in non-interactive form.

Temporal Contradictions of the Internet Economy and their Forms of Appearance , Atle Kjosen The Internet economy has been conceptualized as a contradiction or symbiosis between commodity and gift exchange. Richard Barbrook argues that the Internet, with its reliance on non-rivalrous digital data and low cost of copying, enables the existence of a high-tech version of the gift economies that Marcell Mauss and other economic anthropologists have theorized. Similarly, Christian Fuchs argues that "information gifts form a part of the Internet economy in which goods are distributed for free and openly accessible.

Read-only objects are subject to copyright and before they can be used permission must be given, usually granted through purchase. Barbrook also recognizes that the same piece of digital code may exist as both a gift and a commodity. Similarly, Fuchs argues that the circulation of digital commodities form part of a sub-system of the Internet economy that is controlled by intellectual property rights. This paper, while agreeing with Barbrook, Fuchs and Lessig that the Internet economy is a contradiction between gifts and commodities, will argue that these theorists have focused only on appearances and have not recognized the fundamental contradiction of the Internet.

Conceiving the Internet as a real-time environment, the paper will argue that the internal contradiction is temporal: Jennifer rated it did not like it Nov 01, Katie rated it really liked it Jun 24, Jennifer Silbaugh rated it liked it Mar 28, John Bastin rated it liked it Sep 03, Jeffrey rated it liked it Jan 09, Toni M rated it it was ok Jan 05, Kathy Greene rated it did not like it Dec 26, Thomas Rose rated it did not like it Sep 21, Mikey rated it liked it Nov 24, Erin Coleman emry rated it liked it Dec 03, Johan D rated it did not like it Jul 29, Leanne rated it did not like it Jan 07, Deb rated it did not like it Oct 28, Frank rated it it was ok Sep 06, Kevin rated it it was ok Jun 09, Michael rated it it was ok Apr 23, Glenn Sweeney rated it really liked it Jul 11, Nancy Bartolai rated it did not like it Oct 21, There are no discussion topics on this book yet.

Eric Kraft grew up in Babylon, New York, on the South Shore of Long Island, where he was for a time co-owner and co-captain of a clam boat, which sank. He met or invented the character Peter Leroy while dozing over a German lesson during his first year at Harvard. The following year, he married his muse, Madeline Canning; they have two sons.

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